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View Full Version : Basic Terminology


TommyH
09-03-2013, 10:03 PM
Below is some basic terms with descriptions that are commonly used in our thread posts. I am sure there will be terms I forget to add. If you notice a mistake or want something added please shoot reply to the thread and I will edit this first post to make it easy to find. Maybe once it is up we can get it stickied for future users.

These are very basic and can get into much deeper discussions for each.

Camera Settings

Shutter speed - length of time a camera's shutter is open. This can be very fast, fractions of a second to minutes. For more info see this link Introduction to Shutter Speed in Digital Photography (http://digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed)

Aperture (aka f stop) - Opening in which light travels through to reach the film or camera sensor. This is like the human iris, in low light situations your iris is very large to allow more light in, in bright light situations it gets very small to allow less light in. The same effect happens with aperture on camera. However, on your camera the smaller the number the larger the opening, the bigger the number the smaller the opening so it's reversed thinking. With this the smaller the opening the more things will be in focus. The larger the opening less items will be in focus in the image. See link for more info Introduction to Aperture in Digital Photography (http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture)

ISO - This is what used to be considered before digital as film speeds. It is how sensitive your sensor or film is to light. The lower the number the less sensitive the sensor is and you will have to compensate with either shutter speed or aperture. The higher the number the more sensitive it is to light allowing for faster shutter speeds or smaller apertures. The trade off is "noise" for digital or "grain" for film speeds. See this link ISO Settings in Digital Photography (http://digital-photography-school.com/iso-settings)


Camera Sensors

Crop Sensor - Sensor size relative to 35mm film cameras. With a crop sensor the image sensor is smaller then a traditional 35mm film frame. With this is makes a lens appear to have a greater focal length. Different brands have different crop factors and can be looked up accordingly. Typically found on consumer and prosumer camera bodies.

Full Frame - Sensor size that is traditionally the same size as a frame of film. Believe it is about 24mm x 36mm in size.

Lens Types

Zoom Lens - Very broad range and quite a few lenses will fall in this category. This is any lens that the focal length is variable, can consist of wide angle, telephoto, super telephoto, etc. Example but not limited to 18-55mm lens.

Prime Lens - This is a fixed focal length lens. Example would be 50mm lens.

Fast Lens - This is a lens with traditionally an aperture or f stop of f4.0 or lower.

Fisheye - Lens with an angle of view of 180°. Called a fisheye due to the circle type image they create.

Wide Angle/ultra wide angle - These can range from 10mm - 35mm or so depending on your camera's sensor. For a crop sensor a wide angle would be something along lens of 10-17mm, same lens on a full frame camera might be considered a ultra wide angle. As you get higher closer to the 35mm range that would still be considered wide on a full frame, but on a crop sensor would be more of a standard lens

Macro lens - These allow you to get close up shots and have the ability to focus on your subject.

Kit lens - This is the lens that will come with most DSLR bodies especially on consumer and prosumer kits. Usually an entry level lens, prosumer kits might come with a mid range/prosumer lens.

Telephoto/Supertelephoto - Typically lens that has a focal length of 70mm-300mm+. Once over the 300mm typically called a super telephoto.


Other Terms

Exif - File created by camera that holds all the info about the image. This will give you shutter speed, aperture, focal length, iso, etc.

Raw - Unedited file by camera. When you shoot in fine, jpeg, etc. typically dslr will process the image in camera with things such as contrast, saturation, color balance, white balance, etc. A raw file is untouched by the camera so you can have more control with the editing/processing of the image with software on computer.

Depth of Field - How much of the image is in focus. This is dependent on Aperture, focal length, and distance to subject. Small aperture, short focal length and far distance from subject will result in large depth of field or more in focus. Opposite holds true with larger aperture, bigger focal length and closer distance will result in shallow depth of field or less in focus. You can play with the combo of these to achieve the look you are going for. Large depth of field typically used for landscape while shallow is used for portraits or to really highlight only the subject


lorah
09-04-2013, 02:04 AM
Great Tommy! Now I have to figure out how to 'sticky' it!

ndswam
09-04-2013, 04:26 PM
I agree! Great information.


jamest
09-14-2013, 04:55 AM
Thanks for the great info :)

Magilli
11-06-2013, 08:18 AM
Thanks for the needed info! :)

Scioto
01-23-2014, 08:36 AM
Forced Flash/Fill - Using the flash to light subjects, especially when there is a bright background behind them (such a portrait of someone in front of a bright window). Also used to fill in shadows, as done with this shot of peppers under a canopy of foliage.

Shutter Priority - Setting the shutter speed you want, such as slow for a waterfall or fast for sports, where the camera selects the right aperture for a correct exposure.

Aperture Priority - Setting the aperture you want (see depth of field above) where the camera selects the right shutter speed for a correct exposure.

Demetrius MediaMustang
02-06-2014, 10:01 PM
thanks for the knowledge

alexparker55
10-13-2014, 04:07 PM
Thanks, i always remember that
Nice info

nicebird
12-19-2014, 12:18 PM
Thanks for the very informative article

ds_business_solutions_LLC
01-01-2015, 08:05 PM
thanks for the knowledge

Great Information
Thank You for the great post.

arunasuryan
03-12-2015, 09:58 PM
Thanks for this great information.

jrcorbes
08-09-2015, 02:35 AM
Thank you for posting this! :)

jass84
01-25-2018, 04:29 AM
Great Tommy! its good
__________________

jass84
01-31-2018, 02:57 AM
Thanks for the needed info :)

jass84
02-05-2018, 04:36 AM
Great Tommy! Now I have to figure out how to 'sticky' it!



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